Brings transcriptomics to the tidyverse! The code is released under the version 3 of the GNU General Public License.

website: stemangiola.github.io/tidybulk/

Please have a look also to

  • tidyseurat for tidy high-level data analysis and manipulation
  • nanny for tidy high-level data analysis and manipulation
  • tidygate for adding custom gate information to your tibble
  • tidyHeatmap for heatmaps produced with tidy principles

Functions/utilities available

Function Description
identify_abundant identify the abundant genes
aggregate_duplicates Aggregate abundance and annotation of duplicated transcripts in a robust way
scale_abundance Scale (normalise) abundance for RNA sequencing depth
reduce_dimensions Perform dimensionality reduction (PCA, MDS, tSNE)
cluster_elements Labels elements with cluster identity (kmeans, SNN)
remove_redundancy Filter out elements with highly correlated features
adjust_abundance Remove known unwanted variation (Combat)
test_differential_abundance Differential transcript abundance testing (DE)
deconvolve_cellularity Estimated tissue composition (Cibersort or llsr)
test_differential_cellularity Differential cell-type abundance testing
keep_variable Filter for top variable features
keep_abundant Filter out lowly abundant transcripts
test_gene_enrichment Gene enrichment analyses (EGSEA)
test_gene_overrepresentation Gene enrichment on list of transcript names (no rank)
Utilities Description
get_bibliography Get the bibliography of your workflow
tidybulk add tidybulk attributes to a tibble object
tidybulk_SAM_BAM Convert SAM BAM files into tidybulk tibble
pivot_sample Select sample-wise columns/information
pivot_transcript Select transcript-wise columns/information
rotate_dimensions Rotate two dimensions of a degree
ensembl_to_symbol Add gene symbol from ensembl IDs
symbol_to_entrez Add entrez ID from gene symbol
describe_transcript Add gene description from gene symbol
impute_missing_abundance Impute abundance for missing data points using sample groupings
fill_missing_abundance Fill abundance for missing data points using an arbitrary value

Minimal input data frame

sample transcript abundance annotation
chr or fctr chr or fctr integer

Output data frame

sample transcript abundance annotation new information
chr or fctr chr or fctr integer

All functions are also directly compatible with SummarizedExperiment object.

Installation

From Bioconductor

BiocManager::install("tidybulk")

From Github

devtools::install_github("stemangiola/tidybulk")

Create tidybulk tibble.

It memorises key column names

tt = tidybulk::counts %>% tidybulk(sample, transcript, count)

Get the bibliography of your workflow

First of all, you can cite all articles utilised within your workflow automatically from any tidybulk tibble

tt %>%
    # call analysis functions
    get_bibliography()

Aggregate duplicated transcripts

tidybulk provide the aggregate_duplicates function to aggregate duplicated transcripts (e.g., isoforms, ensembl). For example, we often have to convert ensembl symbols to gene/transcript symbol, but in doing so we have to deal with duplicates. aggregate_duplicates takes a tibble and column names (as symbols; for sample, transcript and count) as arguments and returns a tibble with transcripts with the same name aggregated. All the rest of the columns are appended, and factors and boolean are appended as characters.

TidyTranscriptomics

r yellow tt.aggr = tt %>% aggregate_duplicates()

Standard procedure (comparative purpose)

temp = data.frame(
    symbol = dge_list$genes$symbol,
    dge_list$counts
)
dge_list.nr <- by(temp, temp$symbol,
    function(df)
        if(length(df[1,1])>0)
            matrixStats:::colSums(as.matrix(df[,-1]))
)
dge_list.nr <- do.call("rbind", dge_list.nr)
colnames(dge_list.nr) <- colnames(dge_list)

Scale counts

We may want to compensate for sequencing depth, scaling the transcript abundance (e.g., with TMM algorithm, Robinson and Oshlack doi.org/10.1186/gb-2010-11-3-r25). scale_abundance takes a tibble, column names (as symbols; for sample, transcript and count) and a method as arguments and returns a tibble with additional columns with scaled data as <NAME OF COUNT COLUMN>_scaled.

TidyTranscriptomics

tt.norm = tt.aggr %>% identify_abundant(factor_of_interest = condition) %>% scale_abundance()

Standard procedure (comparative purpose)

library(edgeR)

dgList <- DGEList(count_m=x,group=group)
keep <- filterByExpr(dgList)
dgList <- dgList[keep,,keep.lib.sizes=FALSE]
[...]
dgList <- calcNormFactors(dgList, method="TMM")
norm_counts.table <- cpm(dgList)

We can easily plot the scaled density to check the scaling outcome. On the x axis we have the log scaled counts, on the y axes we have the density, data is grouped by sample and coloured by cell type.

tt.norm %>%
    ggplot(aes(count_scaled + 1, group=sample, color=`Cell type`)) +
    geom_density() +
    scale_x_log10() +
    my_theme

Filter variable transcripts

We may want to identify and filter variable transcripts.

TidyTranscriptomics

tt.norm.variable = tt.norm %>% keep_variable()

Standard procedure (comparative purpose)

library(edgeR)

x = norm_counts.table

s <- rowMeans((x-rowMeans(x))^2)
o <- order(s,decreasing=TRUE)
x <- x[o[1L:top],,drop=FALSE]

norm_counts.table = norm_counts.table[rownames(x)]

norm_counts.table$cell_type = tidybulk::counts[
    match(
        tidybulk::counts$sample,
        rownames(norm_counts.table)
    ),
    "Cell type"
]

Reduce dimensions

We may want to reduce the dimensions of our data, for example using PCA or MDS algorithms. reduce_dimensions takes a tibble, column names (as symbols; for sample, transcript and count) and a method (e.g., MDS or PCA) as arguments and returns a tibble with additional columns for the reduced dimensions.

MDS (Robinson et al., 10.1093/bioinformatics/btp616)

TidyTranscriptomics

tt.norm.MDS =
  tt.norm %>%
  reduce_dimensions(method="MDS", .dims = 6)

Standard procedure (comparative purpose)

library(limma)

count_m_log = log(count_m + 1)
cmds = limma::plotMDS(ndim = .dims, plot = FALSE)

cmds = cmds %$% 
    cmdscale.out %>%
    setNames(sprintf("Dim%s", 1:6))

cmds$cell_type = tidybulk::counts[
    match(tidybulk::counts$sample, rownames(cmds)),
    "Cell type"
]

On the x and y axes axis we have the reduced dimensions 1 to 3, data is coloured by cell type.

tt.norm.MDS %>% pivot_sample()  %>% select(contains("Dim"), everything())
## # A tibble: 48 x 16
##        Dim1   Dim2    Dim3     Dim4    Dim5  Dim6 sample `Cell type` time 
##       <dbl>  <dbl>   <dbl>    <dbl>   <dbl> <dbl> <chr>  <chr>       <chr>
##  1 -1.52     0.670 -2.08    0.0976   0.125  0.190 SRR17… b_cell      0 d  
##  2 -1.52     0.657 -2.11    0.0803   0.0927 0.193 SRR17… b_cell      1 d  
##  3 -1.50     0.620 -2.02    0.124    0.0997 0.178 SRR17… b_cell      3 d  
##  4 -1.51     0.628 -2.08    0.149    0.0934 0.159 SRR17… b_cell      7 d  
##  5  0.00836 -1.87   0.0561 -0.0444  -0.786  0.174 SRR17… dendritic_… 0 d  
##  6 -0.0532  -1.85   0.0786 -0.00612 -0.709  0.168 SRR17… dendritic_… 1 d  
##  7  0.0255  -1.86   0.0147 -0.0580  -0.947  0.139 SRR17… dendritic_… 3 d  
##  8 -0.0947  -1.86   0.0661 -0.00969 -0.721  0.145 SRR17… dendritic_… 7 d  
##  9  0.257   -2.00   0.187  -0.314    0.746  0.157 SRR17… monocyte    0 d  
## 10  0.265   -1.95   0.185  -0.299    0.732  0.146 SRR17… monocyte    1 d  
## # … with 38 more rows, and 7 more variables: condition <chr>, batch <chr>,
## #   factor_of_interest <chr>, `merged transcripts` <dbl>, .abundant <lgl>,
## #   TMM <dbl>, multiplier <dbl>
tt.norm.MDS %>%
    pivot_sample() %>%
  GGally::ggpairs(columns = 10:15, ggplot2::aes(colour=`Cell type`))

PCA

TidyTranscriptomics

tt.norm.PCA =
  tt.norm %>%
  reduce_dimensions(method="PCA", .dims = 6)

Standard procedure (comparative purpose)

count_m_log = log(count_m + 1)
pc = count_m_log %>% prcomp(scale = TRUE)
variance = pc$sdev^2
variance = (variance / sum(variance))[1:6]
pc$cell_type = counts[
    match(counts$sample, rownames(pc)),
    "Cell type"
]

On the x and y axes axis we have the reduced dimensions 1 to 3, data is coloured by cell type.

tt.norm.PCA %>% pivot_sample() %>% select(contains("PC"), everything())
## # A tibble: 48 x 16
##        PC1   PC2    PC3     PC4    PC5   PC6 sample `Cell type` time  condition
##      <dbl> <dbl>  <dbl>   <dbl>  <dbl> <dbl> <chr>  <chr>       <chr> <chr>    
##  1 -12.6   -2.52 -14.9  -0.424  -0.592 -1.22 SRR17… b_cell      0 d   TRUE     
##  2 -12.6   -2.57 -15.2  -0.140  -0.388 -1.30 SRR17… b_cell      1 d   TRUE     
##  3 -12.6   -2.41 -14.5  -0.714  -0.344 -1.10 SRR17… b_cell      3 d   TRUE     
##  4 -12.5   -2.34 -14.9  -0.816  -0.427 -1.00 SRR17… b_cell      7 d   TRUE     
##  5   0.189 13.0    1.66 -0.0269  4.64  -1.35 SRR17… dendritic_… 0 d   FALSE    
##  6  -0.293 12.9    1.76 -0.0727  4.21  -1.28 SRR17… dendritic_… 1 d   FALSE    
##  7   0.407 13.0    1.42 -0.0529  5.37  -1.01 SRR17… dendritic_… 3 d   FALSE    
##  8  -0.620 13.0    1.73 -0.201   4.17  -1.07 SRR17… dendritic_… 7 d   FALSE    
##  9   2.56  13.5    2.32  2.03   -4.32  -1.22 SRR17… monocyte    0 d   FALSE    
## 10   2.65  13.1    2.21  1.80   -4.29  -1.30 SRR17… monocyte    1 d   FALSE    
## # … with 38 more rows, and 6 more variables: batch <chr>,
## #   factor_of_interest <chr>, `merged transcripts` <dbl>, .abundant <lgl>,
## #   TMM <dbl>, multiplier <dbl>
tt.norm.PCA %>%
     pivot_sample() %>%
  GGally::ggpairs(columns = 10:12, ggplot2::aes(colour=`Cell type`))

tSNE

TidyTranscriptomics

tt.norm.tSNE =
    breast_tcga_mini %>%
    tidybulk(       sample, ens, count_scaled) %>%
    identify_abundant() %>%
    reduce_dimensions(
        method = "tSNE",
        perplexity=10,
        pca_scale =TRUE
    )

Standard procedure (comparative purpose)

count_m_log = log(count_m + 1)

tsne = Rtsne::Rtsne(
    t(count_m_log),
    perplexity=10,
        pca_scale =TRUE
)$Y
tsne$cell_type = tidybulk::counts[
    match(tidybulk::counts$sample, rownames(tsne)),
    "Cell type"
]

Plot

tt.norm.tSNE %>%
    pivot_sample() %>%
    select(contains("tSNE"), everything()) 
## # A tibble: 251 x 4
##     tSNE1   tSNE2 sample                       Call 
##     <dbl>   <dbl> <chr>                        <fct>
##  1   8.68  10.7   TCGA-A1-A0SD-01A-11R-A115-07 LumA 
##  2  -4.96   4.18  TCGA-A1-A0SF-01A-11R-A144-07 LumA 
##  3   5.76   0.187 TCGA-A1-A0SG-01A-11R-A144-07 LumA 
##  4   8.18  -8.05  TCGA-A1-A0SH-01A-11R-A084-07 LumA 
##  5   8.26   6.69  TCGA-A1-A0SI-01A-11R-A144-07 LumB 
##  6  -4.24  -2.30  TCGA-A1-A0SJ-01A-11R-A084-07 LumA 
##  7 -31.2  -10.3   TCGA-A1-A0SK-01A-12R-A084-07 Basal
##  8   3.27 -13.2   TCGA-A1-A0SM-01A-11R-A084-07 LumA 
##  9   2.03 -13.8   TCGA-A1-A0SN-01A-11R-A144-07 LumB 
## 10  23.3   10.1   TCGA-A1-A0SQ-01A-21R-A144-07 LumA 
## # … with 241 more rows
tt.norm.tSNE %>%
    pivot_sample() %>%
    ggplot(aes(x = `tSNE1`, y = `tSNE2`, color=Call)) + geom_point() + my_theme

Rotate dimensions

We may want to rotate the reduced dimensions (or any two numeric columns really) of our data, of a set angle. rotate_dimensions takes a tibble, column names (as symbols; for sample, transcript and count) and an angle as arguments and returns a tibble with additional columns for the rotated dimensions. The rotated dimensions will be added to the original data set as <NAME OF DIMENSION> rotated <ANGLE> by default, or as specified in the input arguments.

TidyTranscriptomics

tt.norm.MDS.rotated =
  tt.norm.MDS %>%
    rotate_dimensions(`Dim1`, `Dim2`, rotation_degrees = 45, action="get")

Standard procedure (comparative purpose)

rotation = function(m, d) {
    r = d * pi / 180
    ((bind_rows(
        c(`1` = cos(r), `2` = -sin(r)),
        c(`1` = sin(r), `2` = cos(r))
    ) %>% as_matrix) %*% m)
}
mds_r = pca %>% rotation(rotation_degrees)
mds_r$cell_type = counts[
    match(counts$sample, rownames(mds_r)),
    "Cell type"
]

Original On the x and y axes axis we have the first two reduced dimensions, data is coloured by cell type.

tt.norm.MDS.rotated %>%
    ggplot(aes(x=`Dim1`, y=`Dim2`, color=`Cell type` )) +
  geom_point() +
  my_theme

Rotated On the x and y axes axis we have the first two reduced dimensions rotated of 45 degrees, data is coloured by cell type.

tt.norm.MDS.rotated %>%
    ggplot(aes(x=`Dim1_rotated_45`, y=`Dim2_rotated_45`, color=`Cell type` )) +
  geom_point() +
  my_theme

Test differential abundance

We may want to test for differential transcription between sample-wise factors of interest (e.g., with edgeR). test_differential_abundance takes a tibble, column names (as symbols; for sample, transcript and count) and a formula representing the desired linear model as arguments and returns a tibble with additional columns for the statistics from the hypothesis test (e.g., log fold change, p-value and false discovery rate).

TidyTranscriptomics

tt.de =
    tt %>%
    test_differential_abundance( ~ condition, action="get")
tt.de

Standard procedure (comparative purpose)

library(edgeR)

dgList <- DGEList(counts=counts_m,group=group)
keep <- filterByExpr(dgList)
dgList <- dgList[keep,,keep.lib.sizes=FALSE]
dgList <- calcNormFactors(dgList)
design <- model.matrix(~group)
dgList <- estimateDisp(dgList,design)
fit <- glmQLFit(dgList,design)
qlf <- glmQLFTest(fit,coef=2)
topTags(qlf, n=Inf)

The functon test_differential_abundance operated with contrasts too. The constrasts hve the name of the design matrix (generally )

tt.de =
    tt %>%
    identify_abundant(factor_of_interest = condition) %>%
    test_differential_abundance(
        ~ 0 + condition,                  
        .contrasts = c( "conditionTRUE - conditionFALSE"),
        action="get"
    )

Adjust counts

We may want to adjust counts for (known) unwanted variation. adjust_abundance takes as arguments a tibble, column names (as symbols; for sample, transcript and count) and a formula representing the desired linear model where the first covariate is the factor of interest and the second covariate is the unwanted variation, and returns a tibble with additional columns for the adjusted counts as <COUNT COLUMN>_adjusted. At the moment just an unwanted covariated is allowed at a time.

TidyTranscriptomics

tt.norm.adj =
    tt.norm %>% adjust_abundance(   ~ factor_of_interest + batch)

Standard procedure (comparative purpose)

library(sva)

count_m_log = log(count_m + 1)

design =
        model.matrix(
            object = ~ factor_of_interest + batch,
            data = annotation
        )

count_m_log.sva =
    ComBat(
            batch = design[,2],
            mod = design,
            ...
        )

count_m_log.sva = ceiling(exp(count_m_log.sva) -1)
count_m_log.sva$cell_type = counts[
    match(counts$sample, rownames(count_m_log.sva)),
    "Cell type"
]

Deconvolve Cell type composition

We may want to infer the cell type composition of our samples (with the algorithm Cibersort; Newman et al., 10.1038/nmeth.3337). deconvolve_cellularity takes as arguments a tibble, column names (as symbols; for sample, transcript and count) and returns a tibble with additional columns for the adjusted cell type proportions.

TidyTranscriptomics

tt.cibersort =
    tt %>%
    deconvolve_cellularity(action="get", cores=1, prefix = "cibersort:") 

Standard procedure (comparative purpose)

source(‘CIBERSORT.R’)
count_m %>% write.table("mixture_file.txt")
results <- CIBERSORT(
    "sig_matrix_file.txt",
    "mixture_file.txt",
    perm=100, QN=TRUE
)
results$cell_type = tidybulk::counts[
    match(tidybulk::counts$sample, rownames(results)),
    "Cell type"
]

With the new annotated data frame, we can plot the distributions of cell types across samples, and compare them with the nominal cell type labels to check for the purity of isolation. On the x axis we have the cell types inferred by Cibersort, on the y axis we have the inferred proportions. The data is facetted and coloured by nominal cell types (annotation given by the researcher after FACS sorting).

tt.cibersort %>%
    select(contains("cibersort:"), everything()) %>%
    gather(`Cell type inferred`, `proportion`, 1:22) %>%
  ggplot(aes(x=`Cell type inferred`, y=proportion, fill=`Cell type`)) +
  geom_boxplot() +
  facet_wrap(~`Cell type`) +
  my_theme +
  theme(axis.text.x = element_text(angle = 90, hjust = 1, vjust = 0.5), aspect.ratio=1/5)

Test differential cell-type abundance

We can also perform a statistical test on the differential cell-type abundance across conditions

    tt %>%
    test_differential_cellularity(. ~ condition )
## # A tibble: 22 x 7
##    .cell_type cell_type_propo… `estimate_(Inte… estimate_condit…
##    <chr>      <list>                      <dbl>            <dbl>
##  1 B cells n… <tibble [48 × 8…            -2.97            2.33 
##  2 B cells m… <tibble [48 × 8…            -4.79            1.86 
##  3 Plasma ce… <tibble [48 × 8…            -5.44           -0.503
##  4 T cells C… <tibble [48 × 8…            -2.28            0.883
##  5 T cells C… <tibble [48 × 8…            -2.79           -0.637
##  6 T cells C… <tibble [48 × 8…            -2.60            0.320
##  7 T cells C… <tibble [48 × 8…            -3.72            2.14 
##  8 T cells f… <tibble [48 × 8…            -5.20           -0.251
##  9 T cells r… <tibble [48 × 8…            -4.80            1.75 
## 10 T cells g… <tibble [48 × 8…            -5.34           -0.219
## # … with 12 more rows, and 3 more variables: std.error_conditionTRUE <dbl>,
## #   statistic_conditionTRUE <dbl>, p.value_conditionTRUE <dbl>

We can also perform regression analysis with censored data (coxph).

    tt %>%
    test_differential_cellularity(survival::Surv(time, dead) ~ .)

Cluster samples

We may want to cluster our data (e.g., using k-means sample-wise). cluster_elements takes as arguments a tibble, column names (as symbols; for sample, transcript and count) and returns a tibble with additional columns for the cluster annotation. At the moment only k-means clustering is supported, the plan is to introduce more clustering methods.

k-means

TidyTranscriptomics

tt.norm.cluster = tt.norm.MDS %>%
  cluster_elements(method="kmeans", centers = 2, action="get" )

Standard procedure (comparative purpose)

count_m_log = log(count_m + 1)

k = kmeans(count_m_log, iter.max = 1000, ...)
cluster = k$cluster

cluster$cell_type = tidybulk::counts[
    match(tidybulk::counts$sample, rownames(cluster)),
    c("Cell type", "Dim1", "Dim2")
]

We can add cluster annotation to the MDS dimesion reduced data set and plot.

 tt.norm.cluster %>%
    ggplot(aes(x=`Dim1`, y=`Dim2`, color=`cluster kmeans`)) +
  geom_point() +
  my_theme

SNN

TidyTranscriptomics

tt.norm.SNN =
    tt.norm.tSNE %>%
    cluster_elements(method = "SNN")

Standard procedure (comparative purpose)

library(Seurat)

snn = CreateSeuratObject(count_m)
snn = ScaleData(
    snn, display.progress = TRUE,
    num.cores=4, do.par = TRUE
)
snn = FindVariableFeatures(snn, selection.method = "vst")
snn = FindVariableFeatures(snn, selection.method = "vst")
snn = RunPCA(snn, npcs = 30)
snn = FindNeighbors(snn)
snn = FindClusters(snn, method = "igraph", ...)
snn = snn[["seurat_clusters"]]

snn$cell_type = tidybulk::counts[
    match(tidybulk::counts$sample, rownames(snn)),
    c("Cell type", "Dim1", "Dim2")
]
tt.norm.SNN %>%
    pivot_sample() %>%
    select(contains("tSNE"), everything()) 
## # A tibble: 251 x 5
##     tSNE1   tSNE2 sample                       Call  `cluster SNN`
##     <dbl>   <dbl> <chr>                        <fct> <fct>        
##  1   8.68  10.7   TCGA-A1-A0SD-01A-11R-A115-07 LumA  1            
##  2  -4.96   4.18  TCGA-A1-A0SF-01A-11R-A144-07 LumA  2            
##  3   5.76   0.187 TCGA-A1-A0SG-01A-11R-A144-07 LumA  1            
##  4   8.18  -8.05  TCGA-A1-A0SH-01A-11R-A084-07 LumA  0            
##  5   8.26   6.69  TCGA-A1-A0SI-01A-11R-A144-07 LumB  0            
##  6  -4.24  -2.30  TCGA-A1-A0SJ-01A-11R-A084-07 LumA  1            
##  7 -31.2  -10.3   TCGA-A1-A0SK-01A-12R-A084-07 Basal 3            
##  8   3.27 -13.2   TCGA-A1-A0SM-01A-11R-A084-07 LumA  2            
##  9   2.03 -13.8   TCGA-A1-A0SN-01A-11R-A144-07 LumB  2            
## 10  23.3   10.1   TCGA-A1-A0SQ-01A-21R-A144-07 LumA  1            
## # … with 241 more rows
tt.norm.SNN %>%
    pivot_sample() %>%
    gather(source, Call, c("cluster SNN", "Call")) %>%
    distinct() %>%
    ggplot(aes(x = `tSNE1`, y = `tSNE2`, color=Call)) + geom_point() + facet_grid(~source) + my_theme

# Do differential transcription between clusters
tt.norm.SNN %>%
    mutate(factor_of_interest = `cluster SNN` == 3) %>%
    test_differential_abundance(
    ~ factor_of_interest,
    action="get"
   )
## # A tibble: 500 x 7
##    ens             .abundant   logFC logCPM      F   PValue      FDR
##    <chr>           <lgl>       <dbl>  <dbl>  <dbl>    <dbl>    <dbl>
##  1 ENSG00000002834 TRUE      -1.01    10.7  43.1   2.95e-10 8.32e-10
##  2 ENSG00000003989 TRUE      -3.59     9.93 81.5   4.61e-17 2.50e-16
##  3 ENSG00000004478 TRUE      -0.129   10.6   0.819 3.66e- 1 3.89e- 1
##  4 ENSG00000006125 TRUE      -0.673   10.7  29.9   1.10e- 7 2.29e- 7
##  5 ENSG00000008988 TRUE       0.830   11.3  80.4   6.89e-17 3.66e-16
##  6 ENSG00000009307 TRUE       0.405   11.3  30.2   9.30e- 8 1.96e- 7
##  7 ENSG00000010278 TRUE       0.0907  10.6   0.727 3.95e- 1 4.17e- 1
##  8 ENSG00000011465 TRUE      -1.22    11.1  39.6   1.34e- 9 3.47e- 9
##  9 ENSG00000012223 TRUE       0.270   11.8   0.327 5.68e- 1 5.84e- 1
## 10 ENSG00000012660 TRUE      -1.72    10.5  91.2   1.16e-18 7.06e-18
## # … with 490 more rows

Drop redundant transcripts

We may want to remove redundant elements from the original data set (e.g., samples or transcripts), for example if we want to define cell-type specific signatures with low sample redundancy. remove_redundancy takes as arguments a tibble, column names (as symbols; for sample, transcript and count) and returns a tibble with redundant elements removed (e.g., samples). Two redundancy estimation approaches are supported:

  • removal of highly correlated clusters of elements (keeping a representative) with method=“correlation”
  • removal of most proximal element pairs in a reduced dimensional space.

Approach 1

TidyTranscriptomics

tt.norm.non_redundant =
    tt.norm.MDS %>%
  remove_redundancy(    method = "correlation" )

Standard procedure (comparative purpose)

library(widyr)

.data.correlated =
    pairwise_cor(
        counts,
        sample,
        transcript,
        rc,
        sort = TRUE,
        diag = FALSE,
        upper = FALSE
    ) %>%
    filter(correlation > correlation_threshold) %>%
    distinct(item1) %>%
    rename(!!.element := item1)

# Return non redudant data frame
counts %>% anti_join(.data.correlated) %>%
    spread(sample, rc, - transcript) %>%
    left_join(annotation)

We can visualise how the reduced redundancy with the reduced dimentions look like

tt.norm.non_redundant %>%
    pivot_sample() %>%
    ggplot(aes(x=`Dim1`, y=`Dim2`, color=`Cell type`)) +
  geom_point() +
  my_theme

Approach 2

tt.norm.non_redundant =
    tt.norm.MDS %>%
  remove_redundancy(
    method = "reduced_dimensions",
    Dim_a_column = `Dim1`,
    Dim_b_column = `Dim2`
  )

We can visualise MDS reduced dimensions of the samples with the closest pair removed.

tt.norm.non_redundant %>%
    pivot_sample() %>%
    ggplot(aes(x=`Dim1`, y=`Dim2`, color=`Cell type`)) +
  geom_point() +
  my_theme

Other useful wrappers

The above wrapper streamline the most common processing of bulk RNA sequencing data. Other useful wrappers are listed above.

From BAM/SAM to tibble of gene counts

We can calculate gene counts (using FeatureCounts; Liao Y et al., 10.1093/nar/gkz114) from a list of BAM/SAM files and format them into a tidy structure (similar to counts).

counts = tidybulk_SAM_BAM(
    file_names,
    genome = "hg38",
    isPairedEnd = TRUE,
    requireBothEndsMapped = TRUE,
    checkFragLength = FALSE,
    useMetaFeatures = TRUE
)

From ensembl IDs to gene symbol IDs

We can add gene symbols from ensembl identifiers. This is useful since different resources use ensembl IDs while others use gene symbol IDs. This currently works for human and mouse.

counts_ensembl %>% ensembl_to_symbol(ens)
## # A tibble: 119 x 8
##    ens   iso   `read count` sample cases_0_project… cases_0_samples… transcript
##    <chr> <chr>        <dbl> <chr>  <chr>            <chr>            <chr>     
##  1 ENSG… 13             144 TARGE… Acute Myeloid L… Primary Blood D… TSPAN6    
##  2 ENSG… 13              72 TARGE… Acute Myeloid L… Primary Blood D… TSPAN6    
##  3 ENSG… 13               0 TARGE… Acute Myeloid L… Primary Blood D… TSPAN6    
##  4 ENSG… 13            1099 TARGE… Acute Myeloid L… Primary Blood D… TSPAN6    
##  5 ENSG… 13              11 TARGE… Acute Myeloid L… Primary Blood D… TSPAN6    
##  6 ENSG… 13               2 TARGE… Acute Myeloid L… Primary Blood D… TSPAN6    
##  7 ENSG… 13               3 TARGE… Acute Myeloid L… Primary Blood D… TSPAN6    
##  8 ENSG… 13            2678 TARGE… Acute Myeloid L… Primary Blood D… TSPAN6    
##  9 ENSG… 13             751 TARGE… Acute Myeloid L… Primary Blood D… TSPAN6    
## 10 ENSG… 13               1 TARGE… Acute Myeloid L… Primary Blood D… TSPAN6    
## # … with 109 more rows, and 1 more variable: ref_genome <chr>

From gene symbol to gene description (gene name in full)

We can add gene full name (and in future description) from symbol identifiers. This currently works for human and mouse.

tt %>% describe_transcript() %>% select(transcript, description, everything())
## # A tibble: 408,624 x 9
##    transcript description sample `Cell type` count time  condition batch
##    <chr>      <chr>       <fct>  <fct>       <dbl> <fct> <lgl>     <fct>
##  1 DDX11L1    DEAD/H-box… SRR17… b_cell         17 0 d   TRUE      0    
##  2 WASH7P     WASP famil… SRR17… b_cell       3568 0 d   TRUE      0    
##  3 MIR6859-1  microRNA 6… SRR17… b_cell         57 0 d   TRUE      0    
##  4 LOC729737  uncharacte… SRR17… b_cell       1764 0 d   TRUE      0    
##  5 MIR6859-2  microRNA 6… SRR17… b_cell         40 0 d   TRUE      0    
##  6 LOC100132… uncharacte… SRR17… b_cell       1703 0 d   TRUE      0    
##  7 LOC100133… <NA>        SRR17… b_cell       1894 0 d   TRUE      0    
##  8 LOC100288… uncharacte… SRR17… b_cell        337 0 d   TRUE      0    
##  9 FAM87B     family wit… SRR17… b_cell         56 0 d   TRUE      0    
## 10 LINC00115  long inter… SRR17… b_cell         50 0 d   TRUE      0    
## # … with 408,614 more rows, and 1 more variable: factor_of_interest <lgl>

ADD versus GET versus ONLY modes

Every function takes a tidytranscriptomics structured data as input, and

(i) with action=“add” outputs the new information joint to the original input data frame (default), (ii) with action=“get” the new information with the sample or transcript relative informatin depending on what the analysis is about, or (iii) with action=“only” just the new information. For example, from this data set

  tt.norm
## # A tibble: 408,624 x 13
##    sample transcript `Cell type` count time  condition batch factor_of_inter…
##    <chr>  <chr>      <chr>       <dbl> <chr> <chr>     <chr> <chr>           
##  1 SRR17… DDX11L1    b_cell         17 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  2 SRR17… WASH7P     b_cell       3568 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  3 SRR17… MIR6859-1  b_cell         57 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  4 SRR17… LOC729737  b_cell       1764 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  5 SRR17… MIR6859-2  b_cell         40 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  6 SRR17… LOC100132… b_cell       1703 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  7 SRR17… LOC100133… b_cell       1894 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  8 SRR17… LOC100288… b_cell        337 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  9 SRR17… FAM87B     b_cell         56 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
## 10 SRR17… LINC00115  b_cell         50 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
## # … with 408,614 more rows, and 5 more variables: `merged transcripts` <dbl>,
## #   .abundant <lgl>, TMM <dbl>, multiplier <dbl>, count_scaled <dbl>

action=“add” (Default) We can add the MDS dimensions to the original data set

  tt.norm %>%
    reduce_dimensions(
        .abundance = count_scaled,
        method="MDS" ,
        .element = sample,
        .feature = transcript,
        .dims = 3,
        action="add"
    )
## # A tibble: 408,624 x 16
##    sample transcript `Cell type` count time  condition batch factor_of_inter…
##    <chr>  <chr>      <chr>       <dbl> <chr> <chr>     <chr> <chr>           
##  1 SRR17… DDX11L1    b_cell         17 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  2 SRR17… WASH7P     b_cell       3568 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  3 SRR17… MIR6859-1  b_cell         57 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  4 SRR17… LOC729737  b_cell       1764 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  5 SRR17… MIR6859-2  b_cell         40 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  6 SRR17… LOC100132… b_cell       1703 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  7 SRR17… LOC100133… b_cell       1894 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  8 SRR17… LOC100288… b_cell        337 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
##  9 SRR17… FAM87B     b_cell         56 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
## 10 SRR17… LINC00115  b_cell         50 0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE            
## # … with 408,614 more rows, and 8 more variables: `merged transcripts` <dbl>,
## #   .abundant <lgl>, TMM <dbl>, multiplier <dbl>, count_scaled <dbl>,
## #   Dim1 <dbl>, Dim2 <dbl>, Dim3 <dbl>

action=“get” We can add the MDS dimensions to the original data set selecting just the sample-wise column

  tt.norm %>%
    reduce_dimensions(
        .abundance = count_scaled,
        method="MDS" ,
        .element = sample,
        .feature = transcript,
        .dims = 3,
        action="get"
    )
## # A tibble: 48 x 13
##    sample `Cell type` time  condition batch factor_of_inter… `merged transcr…
##    <chr>  <chr>       <chr> <chr>     <chr> <chr>                       <dbl>
##  1 SRR17… b_cell      0 d   TRUE      0     TRUE                            1
##  2 SRR17… b_cell      1 d   TRUE      1     TRUE                            1
##  3 SRR17… b_cell      3 d   TRUE      1     TRUE                            1
##  4 SRR17… b_cell      7 d   TRUE      1     TRUE                            1
##  5 SRR17… dendritic_… 0 d   FALSE     0     FALSE                           1
##  6 SRR17… dendritic_… 1 d   FALSE     0     FALSE                           1
##  7 SRR17… dendritic_… 3 d   FALSE     1     FALSE                           1
##  8 SRR17… dendritic_… 7 d   FALSE     0     FALSE                           1
##  9 SRR17… monocyte    0 d   FALSE     1     FALSE                           1
## 10 SRR17… monocyte    1 d   FALSE     1     FALSE                           1
## # … with 38 more rows, and 6 more variables: .abundant <lgl>, TMM <dbl>,
## #   multiplier <dbl>, Dim1 <dbl>, Dim2 <dbl>, Dim3 <dbl>

action=“only” We can get just the MDS dimensions relative to each sample

  tt.norm %>%
    reduce_dimensions(
        .abundance = count_scaled,
        method="MDS" ,
        .element = sample,
        .feature = transcript,
        .dims = 3,
        action="only"
    )
## # A tibble: 48 x 4
##    sample         Dim1   Dim2    Dim3
##    <chr>         <dbl>  <dbl>   <dbl>
##  1 SRR1740034 -1.52     0.670 -2.08  
##  2 SRR1740035 -1.52     0.657 -2.11  
##  3 SRR1740036 -1.50     0.620 -2.02  
##  4 SRR1740037 -1.51     0.628 -2.08  
##  5 SRR1740038  0.00836 -1.87   0.0561
##  6 SRR1740039 -0.0532  -1.85   0.0786
##  7 SRR1740040  0.0255  -1.86   0.0147
##  8 SRR1740041 -0.0947  -1.86   0.0661
##  9 SRR1740042  0.257   -2.00   0.187 
## 10 SRR1740043  0.265   -1.95   0.185 
## # … with 38 more rows